Get the code: learnlean4.lean

Lean 4 is a dependently typed functional programming language and an interactive theorem prover.

```
/-
An enumerated data type.
-/
inductive Grade where
| A : Grade
| B : Grade
| F : Grade
deriving Repr
/-
Functions.
-/
def grade (m : Nat) : Grade :=
if 80 <= m then Grade.A
else if 60 <= m then Grade.B
else Grade.F
def highMarks := 80 + 9
def lowMarks := 25 + 25
#eval grade highMarks
#eval grade lowMarks
#check (0 : Nat)
/- #check (0 : Grade) -/ /- This is an error. -/
/-
Types themselves are values.
-/
#check (Nat : Type)
/-
Mathematical propositions are values in Lean. `Prop` is the type of
propositions.
Here are some simple propositions.
-/
#check 0 = 1
#check 1 = 1
#check 2^9 - 2^8 = 2^8
/-
Notice Lean displays `0 = 1 : Prop` to say:
The statement "0 = 1" is a proposition.
We want to distinguish true propositions and false propositions. We do this via
proofs.
Each proposition is a type. `0 = 1` is a type, `1 = 1` is another type.
A proposition is true iff there is a value of that type.
How do we construct a value of type `1 = 1`? We use a constructor that is
defined for that type.
`Eq.refl a` constructs a value of type `a = a`. (reflexivity)
Using this we can prove `1 = 1` as follows.
-/
theorem one_eq_one : 1 = 1 := Eq.refl 1
/-
But there is no way to prove (construct a value of type) `0 = 1`.
The following will fail. As will `Eq.refl 1`
-/
/- theorem zero_eq_one : 0 = 1 := Eq.refl 0 -/
/-
Let us prove an inequality involving variables.
The `calc` primitive allows us to prove equalities using stepwise
calculations. Each step has to be justified by a proof.
-/
theorem plus_squared (a b : Nat) : (a+b)^2 = a^2 + 2*a*b + b^2 :=
calc
(a+b)^2 = (a+b)*(a+b) := Nat.pow_two _
_ = (a+b)*a + (a+b)*b := Nat.mul_add _ _ _
_ = a*a + b*a + (a*b + b*b) := by repeat rw [Nat.add_mul]
_ = a*a + b*a + a*b + b*b := by rw [← Nat.add_assoc]
_ = a*a + a*b + a*b + b*b := by rw [Nat.mul_comm b _]
_ = a^2 + a*b + a*b + b*b := by rw [← Nat.pow_two _]
_ = a^2 + a*b + a*b + b^2 := by rw [← Nat.pow_two _]
_ = a^2 + (a*b + a*b) + b^2 := by rw [Nat.add_assoc (a^_)]
_ = a^2 + 2*(a*b) + b^2 := by rw [← Nat.two_mul _]
_ = a^2 + 2*a*b + b^2 := by rw [Nat.mul_assoc _ _ _]
/-
Underscores can be used when there is no ambiguity in what is to be matched.
For example, in the first step, we want to apply `Nat.pow_two (a+b)`. But,
`(a+b)` is the only pattern here to apply `Nat.pow_two`. So we can omit it.
-/
/-
Let us now prove more "realistic" theorems. Those involving logical connectives.
First, we define even and odd numbers.
-/
def Even (n : Nat) := ∃ k, n = 2*k
def Odd (n : Nat) := ∃ k, n = 2*k + 1
/-
To prove an existential, we can provide specific values if we know them.
-/
theorem zero_even : Even 0 :=
have h : 0 = 2 * 0 := Eq.symm (Nat.mul_zero 2)
Exists.intro 0 h
/-
`Exists.intro v h` proves `∃ x, p x` by substituting `x` by `v` and using the
proof `h` for `p v`.
-/
/-
Now, we will see how to use hypothesis that are existentials to prove
conclusions that are existentials.
The curly braces around parameters `n` and `m` indicate that they are
implicit. Here, Lean will infer them from `hn` and `hm`.
-/
theorem even_mul_even_is_even' {n m : Nat} (hn : Even n) (hm : Even m) : Even (n*m) :=
Exists.elim hn (fun k1 hk1 =>
Exists.elim hm (fun k2 hk2 =>
Exists.intro (k1 * ( 2 * k2)) (
calc
n*m = (2 * k1) * (2 * k2) := by rw [hk1, hk2]
_ = 2 * (k1 * (2 * k2)) := by rw [Nat.mul_assoc]
)
)
)
/-
Most proofs are written using *tactics*. These are commands to Lean that guide
it to construct proofs by itself.
The same theorem, proved using tactics.
-/
theorem even_mul_even_is_even {n m : Nat} (hn : Even n) (hm : Even m) : Even (n*m) := by
have ⟨k1, hk1⟩ := hn
have ⟨k2, hk2⟩ := hm
apply Exists.intro $ k1 * (2 * k2)
calc
n*m = (2 * k1) * (2 * k2) := by rw [hk1, hk2]
_ = 2 * (k1 * (2 * k2)) := by rw [Nat.mul_assoc]
/-
Let us work with implications.
-/
theorem succ_of_even_is_odd' {n : Nat} : Even n → Odd (n+1) :=
fun hn =>
have ⟨k, hk⟩ := hn
Exists.intro k (
calc
n + 1 = 2 * k + 1 := by rw [hk]
)
/-
To prove an implication `p → q`, you have to write a function that takes a proof
of `p` and construct a proof of `q`.
Here, `pn` is proof of `Even n := ∃ k, n = 2 *k`. Eliminating the existential
gets us `k` and a proof `hk` of `n = 2 * k`.
Now, we have to introduce the existential `∃ k, n + 1 = 2 * k + 1`. This `k` is
the same as `k` for `n`. And, the equation is proved by a simple calculation
that substitutes `2 * k` for `n`, which is allowed by `hk`.
-/
/-
Same theorem, now using tactics.
-/
theorem succ_of_even_is_odd {n : Nat} : Even n → Odd (n+1) := by
intro hn
have ⟨k, hk⟩ := hn
apply Exists.intro k
rw [hk]
/-
The following theorem can be proved similarly.
We will use this theorem later.
A `sorry` proves any theorem. It should not be used in real proofs.
-/
theorem succ_of_odd_is_even {n : Nat} : Odd n → Even (n+1) := sorry
/-
We can use theorems by applying them.
-/
example : Odd 1 := by
apply succ_of_even_is_odd
exact zero_even
/-
The two new tactics are:
- `apply p` where `p` is an implication `q → r` and `r` is the goal rewrites
the goal to `q`. More generally, `apply t` will unify the current goal with
the conclusion of `t` and generate goals for each hypothesis of `t`.
- `exact h` solves the goal by stating that the goal is the same as `h`.
-/
/-
Let us see examples of disjunctions.
-/
example : Even 0 ∨ Odd 0 := Or.inl zero_even
example : Even 0 ∨ Odd 1 := Or.inl zero_even
example : Odd 1 ∨ Even 0 := Or.inr zero_even
/-
Here, we always know from `p ∨ q` which of `p` and/or `q` is correct. So we can
introduce a proof of the correct side.
-/
/-
Let us see a more "standard" disjunction.
Here, from the hypothesis that `n : Nat`, we cannot determine whether `n` is
even or odd. So we cannot construct `Or` directly.
But, for any specific `n`, we will know which one to construct.
This is exactly what induction allows us to do. We introduce the `induction`
tactic.
The inductive hypothesis is a disjunction. When disjunctions appear at the
hypothesis, we use *proof by exhaustive cases*. This is done using the `cases`
tactic.
-/
theorem even_or_odd {n : Nat} : Even n ∨ Odd n := by
induction n
case zero => left ; exact zero_even
case succ n ihn =>
cases ihn with
| inl h => right ; apply (succ_of_even_is_odd h)
| inr h => left ; apply (succ_of_odd_is_even h)
/-
`induction` is not just for natural numbers. It is for any type, since all types
in Lean are inductive.
-/
/-
We now state Collatz conjecture. The proof is left as an exercise to the reader.
-/
def collatz_next (n : Nat) : Nat :=
if n % 2 = 0 then n / 2 else 3 * n + 1
def iter (k : Nat) (f: Nat → Nat) :=
match k with
| Nat.zero => fun x => x
| Nat.succ k' => fun x => f (iter k' f x)
theorem collatz : ∀ n, n > 0 → ∃ k, iter k collatz_next n = 1 := sorry
/-
Now, some "corner cases" in logic.
-/
/-
The proposition `True` is something that can be trivially proved.
`True.intro` is a constructor for proving `True`. Notice that it needs no
inputs.
-/
theorem obvious : True := True.intro
/-
On the other hand, there is no constructor for `False`.
We have to use `sorry`.
-/
theorem impossible : False := sorry
/-
Any `False` in the hypothesis allows us to conclude anything.
Written in term style, we use the eliminator `False.elim`. It takes a proof of
`False`, here `h`, and concludes whatever is the goal.
-/
theorem nonsense (h : False) : 0 = 1 := False.elim h
/-
The `contradiction` tactic uses any `False` in the hypothesis to conclude the
goal.
-/
theorem more_nonsense (h : False) : 1 = 2 := by contradiction
/-
To illustrate constructive vs classical logic, we now prove the contrapositive
theorem.
The forward direction does not require classical logic.
-/
theorem contrapositive_forward' (p q : Prop) : (p → q) → (¬q → ¬p) :=
fun pq => fun hqf => fun hp => hqf (pq hp)
/-
Use the definition `¬q := q → False`. Notice that we have to construct `p →
False` given `p → q` and `q → False`. This is just function composition.
-/
/-
The above proof, using tactics.
-/
theorem contrapositive_forward (p q : Prop) : (p → q) → (¬q → ¬p) := by
intro hpq
intro
intro hp
specialize hpq hp
contradiction
/-
The reverse requires classical logic.
Here, we are required to construct a `q` given values of following types:
- `(q → False) → (p → False)`.
- `p`.
This is impossible without using the law of excluded middle.
-/
theorem contrapositive_reverse' (p q : Prop) : (¬q → ¬p) → (p → q) :=
fun hnqnp =>
Classical.byCases
(fun hq => fun _ => hq)
(fun hnq => fun hp => absurd hp (hnqnp hnq))
/-
Law of excluded middle tells us that we will have a `q` or a `q → False`. In the
first case, it is trivial to construct a `q`, we already have it. In the second
case, we give the `q → False` to obtain a `p → False`. Then, we use the fact
(in constructive logic) that given `p` and `p → False`, we can construct
`False`. Once, we have `False`, we can construct anything, and specifically `q`.
-/
/-
Same proof, using tactics.
-/
theorem contrapositive_reverse (p q : Prop) : (¬q → ¬p) → (p → q) := by
intro hnqnp
intro hp
have emq := Classical.em q
cases emq
case inl _ => assumption
case inr h => specialize hnqnp h ; contradiction
/-
To illustrate how we can define an work with axiomatic systems. Here is a
definition of Groups and some proofs directly translated from "Topics in
Algebra" by Herstein, Second edition.
-/
/-
A `section` introduces a namespace.
-/
section GroupTheory
/-
To define abstract objects like groups, we may use `class`.
-/
class Group (G : Type u) where
op : G → G → G
assoc : ∀ a b c : G, op (op a b) c = op a (op b c)
e : G
identity: ∀ a : G, op a e = a ∧ op e a = a
inverse: ∀ a : G, ∃ b : G, op a b = e ∧ op b a = e
/-
Let us introduce some notation to make this convenient.
-/
open Group
infixl:70 " * " => op
/-
`G` will always stand for a group and variables `a b c` will be elements of that
group in this `section`.
-/
variable [Group G] {a b c : G}
def is_identity (e' : G) := ∀ a : G, (a * e' = a ∧ e' * a = a)
/-
We prove that the identity element is unique.
-/
theorem identity_element_unique : ∀ e' : G, is_identity e' → e' = e := by
intro e'
intro h
specialize h e
have ⟨h1, _⟩ := h
have h' := identity e'
have ⟨_, h2⟩ := h'
exact Eq.trans (Eq.symm h2) h1
/-
Note that we used the `identity` axiom.
-/
/-
Left cancellation. We have to use both `identity` and `inverse` axioms from
`Group`.
-/
theorem left_cancellation : ∀ x y : G, a * x = a * y → x = y := by
have h1 := inverse a
have ⟨ai, a_inv⟩ := h1
have ⟨_, h2⟩ := a_inv
intro x y
intro h3
calc
x = (e : G) * x := Eq.symm (identity x).right
_ = ai * a * x := by rw [h2]
_ = ai * (a * x) := by rw [assoc]
_ = ai * (a * y) := by rw [h3]
_ = ai * a * y := by rw [← assoc]
_ = (e : G) * y := by rw [h2]
_ = y := (identity y).right
end GroupTheory /- Variables `G`, `a`, `b`, `c` are now not in scope. -/
/-
Let us see a mutually recursive definition.
The game of Nim with two heaps.
-/
abbrev between (lower what upper : Nat) : Prop := lower ≤ what ∧ what ≤ upper
mutual
def Alice : Nat → Nat → Prop
| n1, n2 =>
∃ k, (between 1 k n1 ∧ (between 1 k n1 → Bob (n1-k) n2))
∨ (between 1 k n2 ∧ (between 1 k n2 → Bob n1 (n2-k)))
def Bob : Nat → Nat → Prop
| n1, n2 =>
∀ k, (between 1 k n1 → Alice (n1-k) n2)
∧ (between 1 k n2 → Alice n1 (n2-k))
end
example : Bob 0 0 := by
intro k
induction k
case zero =>
constructor
intro ; contradiction
intro ; contradiction
case succ =>
constructor
intro a ; have := a.right ; contradiction
intro a ; have := a.right ; contradiction
/-
We have to convince Lean of termination when a function is defined using just a
`def`. Here's a simple primality checking algorithm that tests all candidate
divisors.
-/
def prime' (n : Nat) : Bool :=
if h : n < 2 then
false
else
@go 2 n (by omega)
where
go (d : Nat) (n : Nat) {_ : n ≥ d} : Bool :=
if h : n = d then /- `h` needed for `omega` below. -/
true
else if n % d = 0 then
false
else
@go (Nat.succ d) n (by omega)
termination_by (n - d)
/-
We have to specify that the recursive function `go` terminates because `n-k`
decreases in each recursive call. This needs the hypothesis `n > k` at the
recursive call site. But the function itself can only assume that `n ≥ k`. We
label the test `n ≤ k` by `h` so that the falsification of this proposition can
be used by `omega` later to conclude that `n > k`.
The tactic `omega` can solve simple equalities and inequalities.
-/
/-
You can also instruct Lean to not check for totality by prefixing `partial` to
`def`.
-/
/-
Or, we can rewrite the function to test the divisors from largest to
smallest. In this case, Lean easily verifies that the function is total.
-/
def prime (n : Nat) : Bool :=
if n < 2 then
true
else
go (n-1) n
where
go d n :=
if d < 2 then
true
else if n % d = 0 then
false
else
go (d-1) n
/-
Now, to Lean, it is obvious that `go` will terminate because `d` decreases in
each recursive call.
-/
#eval prime 57
#eval prime 97
```

For further learning, see:

Got a suggestion? A correction, perhaps? Open an Issue on the GitHub Repo, or make a pull request yourself!

Originally contributed by Balagopal Komarath, and updated by 1 contributor.